The following is quoted from Wikipedia:

The apparent magnitude (m) of a celestial object is a number that is a measure of its brightness as seen by an observer on Earth. The brighter an object appears, the lower its magnitude value (i.e. inverse relation). The Sun, at apparent magnitude of −27, is the brightest object in the sky. It is adjusted to the value it would have in the absence of the atmosphere. Furthermore, the magnitude scale is logarithmic; a difference of one in magnitude corresponds to a change in brightness by a factor of {\displaystyle {\sqrt[{5}]{100}}}, or about 2.512.

  • The sun: -26.74
  • full moon: -12.74 (1/400,000 of sun)
  • Sirius (brightest in sky): -1.47 (天狼星)
  • Alpha Centauri: -0.27 (南宫二,半人马座alpha)

Peak brilliance of LCLS, 10 orders of higher than 3rd generation synchrotron.

Sun vs Alpha Centauri ??

Richard Feynman

“everything that is living can be understood in terms of the jiggling and wiggling of atoms”.

and now, we want to watch atoms jiggling and wiggling.

X-rays, electrons, fluorescence light, the advances of photon sciences, together with computational modeling, are making this happen.